# Cpsc 370 Aes Key Generator

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**Key generation** is the process of generating keys in cryptography. A key is used to encrypt and decrypt whatever data is being encrypted/decrypted.

A device or program used to generate keys is called a key generator or keygen.

## Generation in cryptography[edit]

Modern cryptographic systems include symmetric-key algorithms (such as DES and AES) and public-key algorithms (such as RSA). Symmetric-key algorithms use a single shared key; keeping data secret requires keeping this key secret. Public-key algorithms use a public key and a private key. The public key is made available to anyone (often by means of a digital certificate). A sender encrypts data with the receiver's public key; only the holder of the private key can decrypt this data.

Since public-key algorithms tend to be much slower than symmetric-key algorithms, modern systems such as TLS and SSH use a combination of the two: one party receives the other's public key, and encrypts a small piece of data (either a symmetric key or some data used to generate it). The remainder of the conversation uses a (typically faster) symmetric-key algorithm for encryption.

Computer cryptography uses integers for keys. In some cases keys are randomly generated using a *random number generator (RNG)* or *pseudorandom number generator (PRNG)*. A PRNG is a computeralgorithm that produces data that appears random under analysis. PRNGs that use system entropy to seed data generally produce better results, since this makes the initial conditions of the PRNG much more difficult for an attacker to guess. Another way to generate randomness is to utilize information outside the system. veracrypt (a disk encryption software) utilizes user mouse movements to generate unique seeds, in which users are encouraged to move their mouse sporadically. In other situations, the key is derived deterministically using a passphrase and a key derivation function.

Many modern protocols are designed to have forward secrecy, which requires generating a fresh new shared key for each session.

Classic cryptosystems invariably generate two identical keys at one end of the communication link and somehow transport one of the keys to the other end of the link.However, it simplifies key management to use Diffie–Hellman key exchange instead.

The simplest method to read encrypted data without actually decrypting it is a brute-force attack—simply attempting every number, up to the maximum length of the key. Therefore, it is important to use a sufficiently long key length; longer keys take exponentially longer to attack, rendering a brute-force attack impractical. Currently, key lengths of 128 bits (for symmetric key algorithms) and 2048 bits (for public-key algorithms) are common.

## Generation in physical layer[edit]

### Wireless channels[edit]

A wireless channel is characterized by its two end users. By transmitting pilot signals, these two users can estimate the channel between them and use the channel information to generate a key which is secret only to them.^{[1]} The common secret key for a group of users can be generated based on the channel of each pair of users.^{[2]}

### Optical fiber[edit]

A key can also be generated by exploiting the phase fluctuation in a fiber link.^{[clarification needed]}

## See also[edit]

- Distributed key generation: For some protocols, no party should be in the sole possession of the secret key. Rather, during
*distributed key generation*, every party obtains a share of the key. A threshold of the participating parties need to cooperate to achieve a cryptographic task, such as decrypting a message.

## References[edit]

**^**Chan Dai Truyen Thai; Jemin Lee; Tony Q. S. Quek (Feb 2016). 'Physical-Layer Secret Key Generation with Colluding Untrusted Relays'.*IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications*.**15**(2): 1517–1530. doi:10.1109/TWC.2015.2491935.**^**Chan Dai Truyen Thai; Jemin Lee; Tony Q. S. Quek (Dec 2015). 'Secret Group Key Generation in Physical Layer for Mesh Topology'.*2015 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM)*. San Diego. pp. 1–6. doi:10.1109/GLOCOM.2015.7417477.

`getInstance`

factory methods (static methods that return instances of a given class). ### Cpsc 370 Aes Key Generator For Sale

A Key pair generator for a particular algorithm creates a public/private key pair that can be used with this algorithm. It also associates algorithm-specific parameters with each of the generated keys.

There are two ways to generate a key pair: in an algorithm-independent manner, and in an algorithm-specific manner. The only difference between the two is the initialization of the object:

**Algorithm-Independent Initialization**All key pair generators share the concepts of a keysize and a source of randomness. The keysize is interpreted differently for different algorithms (e.g., in the case of the

*DSA*algorithm, the keysize corresponds to the length of the modulus). There is an`initialize`

method in this KeyPairGenerator class that takes these two universally shared types of arguments. There is also one that takes just a`keysize`

argument, and uses the`SecureRandom`

implementation of the highest-priority installed provider as the source of randomness. (If none of the installed providers supply an implementation of`SecureRandom`

, a system-provided source of randomness is used.)Since no other parameters are specified when you call the above algorithm-independent

`initialize`

methods, it is up to the provider what to do about the algorithm-specific parameters (if any) to be associated with each of the keys.If the algorithm is the

*DSA*algorithm, and the keysize (modulus size) is 512, 768, or 1024, then the*Sun*provider uses a set of precomputed values for the`p`

,`q`

, and`g`

parameters. If the modulus size is not one of the above values, the*Sun*provider creates a new set of parameters. Other providers might have precomputed parameter sets for more than just the three modulus sizes mentioned above. Still others might not have a list of precomputed parameters at all and instead always create new parameter sets.**Algorithm-Specific Initialization**For situations where a set of algorithm-specific parameters already exists (e.g., so-called

*community parameters*in DSA), there are two`initialize`

methods that have an`AlgorithmParameterSpec`

argument. One also has a`SecureRandom`

argument, while the the other uses the`SecureRandom`

implementation of the highest-priority installed provider as the source of randomness. (If none of the installed providers supply an implementation of`SecureRandom`

, a system-provided source of randomness is used.)

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In case the client does not explicitly initialize the KeyPairGenerator (via a call to an `initialize`

method), each provider must supply (and document) a default initialization. For example, the *Sun* provider uses a default modulus size (keysize) of 1024 bits.

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Note that this class is abstract and extends from `KeyPairGeneratorSpi`

for historical reasons. Application developers should only take notice of the methods defined in this `KeyPairGenerator`

class; all the methods in the superclass are intended for cryptographic service providers who wish to supply their own implementations of key pair generators.

Every implementation of the Java platform is required to support the following standard `KeyPairGenerator`

algorithms and keysizes in parentheses:

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`DiffieHellman`(1024)`DSA`(1024)`RSA`(1024, 2048)